Oxides and Hydroxides

Oxides and hydroxides are minerals generally composed of metals combined with the oxygen element or hydroxyl groups. This class includes about 320 minerals, including single oxides (cassiterite), multiple oxides when several metals coexist (chromite, with iron and chromium), and hydroxides with hydroxyl ions. Oxides are usually extremely hard, unlike hydroxides. The group of spinels (cuprite, magnetite), chrysoberyls for the oxides of aluminum and beryllium (cat’s eye), corundum for the oxides of aluminum (rubies, sapphire), quartz for the oxides of silicon is also distinguished (rock crystal, amethyst, agate, aventurine, jasper), and opals for hydrated silicon oxides. 14% of the minerals are oxides. The most representative minerals are: Anatase, Bixbyite, Brookite, Cassiterite, Chrysoberyl, Cuprite, Corundum (Ruby, Sapphire), Diaspore, Goethite, Hematite, Magnetite, Manganite, Rutile, Spinel and Zincite.

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